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Monte Carlo SimulationA Monte Carlo algorithm is often a numerical Monte Carlo method used to find solutions to mathematical problems (which may have many variables) that cannot easily be solved, for example, by integral calculus, or other numerical methods. For many types of problems, its efficiency relative to other numerical methods increases as the dimension of the problem increases. Or it may be a method for solving other mathematical problems that relies on (pseudo-)random numbers. Monte Carlo methods are useful for modeling phenomena with significant uncertainty in inputs, such as the calculation of risk in business. Monte Carlo methods have also proven efficient in solving coupled integral differential equations of radiation fields and energy transport, and thus these methods have been used in global illumination computations which produce photorealistic images of virtual 3D models, with applications in video games, architecture, design, computer generated films, special effects in cinema, business, economics and other fields. The advantage Monte Carlo methods offer increases as the dimensions of the problem increase.